Mental Health Disorders: CAUSES AND REMEDY

Mental Disorder (MD, Mental or psychiatric illness) is a wide range of conditions affecting mood, thinking and behaviour.

Mental Health (MH): cognitive, behavioural and emotional well-being

MH often refers to the absence of mental disorder but WHO thinks differently: “the state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities can cope with normal stresses of life, can work productively, and is able to make a contribution to his/her community”

In the US, NAMI estimation: 1 in 5 adults have MH problems annually. In 2017, NIMH estimated: 11.2million had a severe psychological condition.

Types

  • Clinical depression
  • Anxiety Disorder/Post traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Dementia
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder
  • Schizophrenia
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
  • Autism

Risk Factors and Causes

  • Everyone is vulnerable irrespective of age, sex, income, race or tribe
  • MD is one of the leading causes of disability in the world
  • Factors + elements of life + world at large = MD. Balance is key.
  • 1. Social and Economic pressure: persecuted ethnic group and low financial means. 903 iran families.
  • 2. Biological factors: certain genes and variants put individuals at risk. Family history is important. Strong in depression and Schizophrenia

Modifiable and Non-modifiable factors

MF

  1. Socioeconomic conditions
  2. Occupation
  3. Social involvement
  4. Educational background
  5. Housing quality

NMF

  1. Gender
  2. Age
  3. Ethnicity

Mental Health Disorders (MHD) and symptoms

  • Anxiety Disorders : restlessness, fatigue, interrup ted sleep. GAD, PD-terror feelings, Phobias-social, simple etc, OCD, PTSD. Phone anxiety Disorders
  • Mood Disorders: affective or depressive. High mood/energy-mania, low-depression/sadness.
  • Schizophrenia: delusions, hallucinations, thought disorders, withdrawal, lack of motivation,flat mood, sleep disorder,
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disoder(ADHD): restlessness, carelessness, limited attention, impulsiveness. Diagnosed at 6-12years.
  • Clinical Depression: in 15-45years, often severe, not the same as sadness due to losses. Hopelessness, tearfulness, angry outbursts over small matters and disinterested in sex, hobbies etc

Social Media Addiction(SMA) and Phone Anxiety Disorders(PAD)

  • About 69% of all Americans use Facebook, ~40% Instagram, 21% TikTok. About 72% use at least one.
  • Social Media use, like drugs, may boost “feel-good hormones” in the brain e.g dopamine which can reinforce the continuous use for pleasure.
  • In-built Algorithms and AI in social media is also a template for addiction.

Social Media Addiction(SMA)

  • SMA: excessive social media use that feels compulsive and interferes with daily life. It is not regular, enjoyable or multiple usages of platforms
  • Signs: consumes the majority of your time, neglecting offline relationships, inability to focus on other things, restless or agitated when denied access, to escape reality
  • Withdrawal symptoms: irritability, restlessness.

Phone Anxiety Disorders(PAD)

“If you are constantly connected you’re going to feel anxiety, and the more people feel anxiety, that can lead to other things like mental and physical ailments ” Dr Nancy Cheever, California State University in her research using 3 teens, measuring heart rate and perspiration levels.

Risk Factors for SMA

  • Low self-esteem
  • Extraversion/Extrovert
  • Low conscientiousness
  • Narcissism
  • Used as a stress-coping mechanism
  • Family Conflict
  • Substance misuse of a sibling or parent

Read Also: Covid-19: NMA Cautions FG As 138 Corp Members Test Positive

Co-Occuring Disorders involving SMA

  • Anxiety Disorders
  • Mood disorders
  • Narcissistic Personality Disorder
  • Eating disorders
  • Gambling disorder
  • Substance use disorders
  • People with social anxiety turn to social media for validation, image and social enhancement.

Types of Mental Health Disorders.

  • Clinical depression
  • Anxiety Disorder Post traumatic Stress Disorder
  • Bipolar Disorder
  • Dementia
  • Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder
  • Schizophrenia
  • Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
  • Autism

Remedy

  • Various methods exist.
  • Treatment is individualistic
  • Close working with health workers gives good prognosis
  1. Psychotherapy: cognitive behavioural therapy(CBT). Psychiatrist, Psychotherapits, Psychologists and Primary Care physicians
  2. Medication
  3. Self-help
  • Reduce alcohol intake
  • Good/more sleep
  • Balanced diet
  • Leave at work
  • Resolve damaging relationships
  • Relaxation techniques

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)

  • A form of psychotherapy that focuses on how a person’s thoughts, beliefs and attitudes affect their feelings and behaviours. Basis:
  • Unhelpful ways of thinking and behaviour leads to psychological problems
  • More beneficial ways of thinking and behaving can be learnt, hence, relieve symptoms.
  • MHD arise from events and meaning people give to them CBT is broad, focuses on various aspects and has many sessions. Common take aways from CBT are:
  1. Identify problems more clearly
  2. Develop an awareness of automatic thoughts
  3. Challenge underlying wrong assumptions
  4. Distinguish between facts and irrational thoughts
  5. Stop fearing the worst
  6. Understand rather than judge themselves or others
  7. Better understand other people’s actions and motivations

Remedy to SMA and PAD

  • Take breaks from SM
  • Digital detox: disconnecting from SM
  • Family therapy for teens anmd youn adults
  • Mental health counseling
  • Behavioural therapy

CC: Dr Shallom Oni (MBBS, MPH, MBA)

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

× How can I help you?